Follow the Guide to Referencing at the University of Manchester link on the Business and Management Referencing tab.
At the Guide to Referencing at the University of Manchester pages select:
Referencing styles -> Harvard
You can download the guide as a pdf file, or read the advice online.
The Guide to Referencing at the University of Manchester (now renamed Referencing guide at the University of Manchester) includes tabs on referencing software: EndNote, EndNote Web, Reference Manager, Zotero and Mendeley.
Based on our popular “Guide to citing references guide (2012)” here are recommendations for citing specialist company and financial databases.
Harvard Style Referencing is now available as part of the Guide to Referencing at the University of Manchester. [12 Jan 2013]
Bloomberg. (2012) Bloomberg Professional. [Online]. Available at: Subscription Service (Accessed: 30 November 2012)
CRSP/Compustat Merged. (2012) CRSP/Compustat Merged. Center for Research in Security Prices. [Online]. Available at: WRDS http://wrds-web.wharton.upenn.edu/wrds/ (Accessed: 14 November 2012)
Datastream. (2012) Thomson Reuters Datastream. [Online]. Available at: Subscription Service (Accessed: November 2012)
Fame, (2012) Fame. Bureau van Dijk. [Online]. Available at: http://fame2.bvdep.com/ (Accessed: 19 November 2012)
Orbis, (2012) Orbis. Bureau van Dijk. [Online]. Available at: https://orbis2.bvdep.com/ (Accessed: 19 November 2012)
SDC Platinum. (2012) SDC Platinum. Thomson Reuters. [Online]. Available at: Subscription Service (Accessed: November 2012)
Thomson One Banker. (2012) Thomson One Banker. Thomson Reuters. [Online]. Available at: http://banker.thomsonib.com/ (Accessed: 19 November 2012)
Reports/Data within a Database
Bloomberg. (2012) “Company information for Rolls Royce PLC”, Bloomberg Professional. [Online]. Available at: Bloomberg Subscription Service (Accessed: 19 November 2012)
Mintel. (2009) Books – UK – December 2009, Market Research Report. [Online]. Available at : http://reports.mintel.com/sinatra/reports/display/id=395633 (Accessed: 05 January 2010).
Meltz, M. A., Lewis, D. & Lovell, N. (2009). [J.P. Morgan report on] The McGraw-Hill Companies – 07 Dec 2009. Thomson Research Investment Research Collection Rpt. 15613728 [Online]. Available at: Thomson Research – http://research.thomsonib.com/ (Accessed: 05 January 2010).
If we consider a database as similar to an e-book then the first decision is whether you are citing the complete database or a separate identifiable part of the database.
Where a company has several databases it is easier for the reader if you use the database name as the author. This means that the in-text citation will be (Datastream, 2012) rather than (Thomson Reuters, 2012a) and the reader has to go to the list of references to find which Thomson Reuters database you are citing.
For additonal information about referencing in general, there is a Referencing Tab in the Business and Management subject guide.
You can also browse the other posts in the referencing category.
We had a query about the availability of the Harvard Manchester EndNote style.
[25 March 2013 - See also Harvard Referencing Style page from the Referencing Guide at the University of Manchester]
One of the problems of the Harvard citation style is that there are lots of variants. In 2010, we developed a Harvard Manchester EndNote style based on our referencing guide, Hynes, J. (2010) “Guide to citing references (Harvard System)”. – see Dec 16 2010 post Citing References in Harvard Style.
John Hynes updated the guide in October 2011, but a revised EndNote style is still in draft form. The changes are relatively minor so you have to be quite pedantic to spot the differences, and we are increasingly aware that that students are choosing alternative reference management software. (Having to buy EndNote for your personal laptop is a significant barrier.) see Dec 3 2011 post Referencing – new guide and software options.
If you are using EndNote, here are some resources that may be useful:
- Citation-Harvard-Test-Oct2011.docx – a test document (Word 2007) for the Manchester Harvard EndNote style
- CitationHarvard-TravelLib.enl – the EndNote library for the above test document,
- Harvard Manchester2012.ens – the latest Harvard Manchester EndNote style (still draft)
- Citation-Harvard-Endnote.doc – a document describing the main issues of using Harvard referencing style in EndNote
- Harvard Manchester2010.ens – the Harvard Manchester EndNote style (2010 version)
If you want to edit either of these EndNote styles to match your requirements there is the FAQ answer for How can I edit an EndNote style?
If you have suggestions for improvement then please leave a comment.
As part of our commitment to supporting you with all your research needs, over the last few months we’ve been recommending some useful business apps for you to download to your tablet devices, some of which are for accessing our databases and some which are for useful external sources.
The launch of Emerald’s first app provides a feature-rich interface with which to find, read and save Emerald academic journal content if you’re on the go.
Showcasing a clean and easy to use design, the app makes searching and browsing for journal content an intuitive and time saving experience. As Emerald subscribers, our customers need simply download the app for their own device and use the search and browse options to start finding content immediately.
You can also tap the “My Profile” box and login to your free profile. If you don’t yet have a profile, you can quickly sign up on the Emerald web-site and unlock the extra functionality, the app allows you to:
- Find what you need, when you need it: Search and browse Emerald’s extensive online content library of almost 100,000 journal articles.
- Personalise your experience: Use your Emerald profile to manage your marked lists and saved searches.
- Spread the word: Email links to your friends/colleagues and share content via the built-in Facebook and Twitter functionality.
- Enhance your knowledge: Read full-text content through the integrated browser. Most content is available in easy to read PDF format too.
- The Emerald app is optimized for the iPad and compatible with iPhone and iPad touch. It requires iOS 3.0 or later and is available free of charge from your app provider.
Remember if you’re using an iPad make certain to add the MBS Library Service page to your Home Screen for easy access to all the Resources we have to offer you for your research. Simply open our page then tap the arrow in a box symbol next to the top URL line and then select “Add to Home Screen”. You can even edit the name of the Web Icon, after you’ve done this – tap the “Add” button.
26 Feb 2103 – latest version on Referencing – new citation guide
The guide provides a brief introduction to referencing: both citing references to others’ work within the text of your assignment/thesis/paper, and compiling an accurate list of references.
The Harvard system (Harvard style) is based on Author – Date information in the text with a list of references at the end in alphabetical order. However, it does allow for some variation in the detailed formatting. For example:
A) Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2010) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 8th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
B) FISHER, D., and HANSTOCK, T., 1998. Citing references: a guide for students. Blackwell.
The guide chooses A because all Manchester Business School course handbooks use uppercase and lowercase for authors’ names, rather than all uppercase (and an unscientific survey of descriptions of Harvard referencing had most with the publication year in brackets).
It is much, much easier to do the references in any assignment/paper/thesis if you keep a record of your related reading as you go along. There are a number of options for reference management:
- Manual (e.g. Word) - Simply create yourself a “my references” document, and as you read a paper/book/… add all the necessary reference information. When writing do your referencing by hand: cutting and pasteing from your references document as appropriate.
- EndNote – A sophisticated reference management system, available on all University of Manchester cluster PCs and supported by Library training sessions. ( JRUL EndNote Page, Endnote FAQs ) However you have to buy a personal copy to use on your own laptop (academic discount available).
- EndNote Web – Free to University of Manchester staff and students with our site licence for EndNote. (JRUL EndNote Web Page, EndNote Web FAQs) Well worth a try before buying your own personal copy of EndNote.
- Zotero – Free reference management software: originally a Mozilla Firefox browser plugin but now also available in a stand-alone version. Well regarded – for example Cambridge Business School library’s recent post Zotero: a new dawn for referencing
- Mendeley – Free reference management software like Zotero – adopts support for collaboration as its unique selling point.
If you have a small number of references it is relatively easy to do your referencing manually. However using reference management software can be a big help in getting your references organised and making it easy to produce a consistent professional set of references like you see in academic texts and journal articles.
When using EndNote and Cite While You Write (CWYW) to manage your references it can be a little tricky to add page numbers into citations in the text.
The key is to edit the EndNote citation and include the page number(s), and any punctuation, in the Suffix not Pages field.
The technical reason for this is that Harvard (and its variants) is an author date citation style and so the pages field is ignored. (In contrast MLA is an author page number citation style, but this is rarely used in business and management literature.)
The EndNote CWYW Edit Citation feature is also used if you want your in text citation to have just the year – just tick the Omit Author checkbox.
Related FAQs on EndNote (from http://go.mbs.ac.uk/bizlib247 ):
- How do I find information about Harvard citation style?
- Where can I find info on how to use EndNote?
- How do I choose a citation style?
- How can I edit an EndNote style?
Finally, advice from the University of Queensland on how to combine references if you have written each chapter as a separate Word document – http://www.library.uq.edu.au/endnote/combine_chapters.html
For University of Manchester tips see Referencing – new citation guide (posted 26 Feb 2013)
EBSCOhost databases are the most-used, premium online information resources for tens of thousands on institutions worldwide. This free app ensures that iPhone and iPod touch users get the most from searching premium EBSCOhost database content like Business Source Premier, the only provider of full text access to the Harvard Business Review.
EBSCO’s new app is free, and offers the convenience and rich functionality that enables users to:
- Choose which databases to search
- Limit Results to full text or peer reviewed
- Sort by relevance or date
- Retrieve full text results in HTML and/or PDF formats
- Save results for offline access at a later date
- Email results to self or others
- View cover flow display of results
To get started, simply click on the EBSCOhost iPhone/iPod touch Application link at the bottom of the EBSCOhost screen and follow the instructions. An email will be forwarded to you enabling you to authenticate your status as an MBS Library user. After this you’re free to search and take advantage of this innovative free new app.
Learn more about EBSCOhost Mobile and the new iPhone app at:
A guide to Business Source Premier is also available on the Library Web-site outlining the key features of the database
Lots of students have recently been asking about reference citing. Either follow this link to find the guide from our Database Guides page
26 Feb 2103 – latest version on Referencing – new citation guide
or you can find the guide on our website at www.mbs.ac.uk/library and click on Electronic Resources. Scroll down and click on Research/Database Guides for this and many more guides to help you through the range of data available from MBS Library
Further referencing information:
- How do I find information about Harvard citation style? [FAQ answer - updated 8 March 2011]
- Related posts in the referencing category
A manual for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations : Chicago style for students and researchers (7th edition)
EDL 808.02/TUR Catalogue link
PL 428.2/TUR (6th edition) Catalogue link
The Harvard citation style is the most commonly required style for references at Manchester Business School. In truth there are many variants on the Harvard style. The Chicago/Turbian style and the APA style (American Psycological Association) are very similar to Harvard and better documented.
Lots of students have recently been asking about reference citing. The library has a useful guide: Guide to citing references (Harvard System)
(Links updated to latest referencing guide – 1 Dec 2012)
There are related questions on Manchester Business Answers 24/7 (FAQ):
If you are planning to use EndNote for managing your references, take a look at the earlier Harvard referencing and EndNote blog post.
(The term Harvard system is sometimes used rather than Harvard style. This is because Harvard is an author date referencing approach that allows a good deal of flexibility on the detailed formatting of references. It is not described in the detail of styles such as APA, Chicago, MLA, and Turbian.)