Home > Library guides, Referencing > Referencing – new guide and software options

Referencing – new guide and software options

Hayes (2010) Guide to citing references (Harvard system)Some of the information in this post is now out of date – for the latest University of Manchester referencing guide goto Referencing – new citation guide (26 February 2013)

The 2011 version of John Hynes’ “Guide to citing references (Harvard system)” is proving to be the most popular of our How to research guides.

The guide provides a brief introduction to referencing: both citing references to others’ work within the text of your assignment/thesis/paper, and compiling an accurate list of references.

The Harvard system (Harvard style) is based on Author – Date information in the text with a list of references at the end in alphabetical order. However, it does allow for some variation in the detailed formatting. For example:
A) Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2010) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 8th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
B) FISHER, D., and HANSTOCK, T., 1998. Citing references: a guide for students. Blackwell.

The guide chooses A because all Manchester Business School course handbooks use uppercase and lowercase for authors’ names, rather than all uppercase (and an unscientific survey of descriptions of Harvard referencing had most with the publication year in brackets).

Reference Management

It is much, much easier to do the references in any assignment/paper/thesis if you keep a record of your related reading as you go along. There are a number of options for reference management:

  • Manual (e.g. Word) – Simply create yourself a “my references” document, and as you read a paper/book/… add all the necessary reference information. When writing do your referencing by hand: cutting and pasteing from your references document as appropriate.
  • EndNoteA sophisticated reference management system, available on all University of Manchester cluster PCs and supported by Library training sessions. ( JRUL EndNote Page, Endnote FAQs ) However you have to buy a personal copy to use on your own laptop (academic discount available).
  • EndNote Web – Free to University of Manchester staff and students with our site licence for EndNote. (JRUL EndNote Web Page, EndNote Web FAQs) Well worth a try before buying your own personal copy of EndNote.
  • Zotero – Free reference management software: originally a Mozilla Firefox browser plugin but now also available in a stand-alone version. Well regarded – for example Cambridge Business School library’s recent post Zotero: a new dawn for referencing
  • Mendeley – Free reference management software like Zotero – adopts support for collaboration as its unique selling point.

If you have a small number of references it is relatively easy to do your referencing manually. However using reference management software can be a big help in getting your references organised and making it easy to produce a consistent professional set of references like you see in academic texts and journal articles.

Categories: Library guides, Referencing Tags:
  1. Christine
    6 December 2011 at 4:54 pm

    Hello, I’m writing a paper and I plan to include graphs that I created using Datastream information. In my referencing I want to be clear that while the calculations and graphs are my work the data is sourced from Datastream. Could you please help me understand how to properly cite the data used and the graphs I created?

  2. markgreenwood
    7 December 2011 at 12:44 pm

    In most academic journals, Datastream would just be acknowledged where it was used (often in the methodology section) and not in the references (on the basis that Datastream would be common knowledge among the readership).
    One approach is a source statement:
    “graphs based on Datastream data (Source: Thomson Reuters Datastream, accessed November 2011).”

    However you could choose to use an explicit reference:
    “graphs based on Datastream (2011) data.”
    Datastream. (2011) Datastream Desktop (Advance & AFO) 5.0. [Online] Thomson Reuters. (Accessed November 2011)

    Fuller explanation to follow.

  3. markgreenwood
    21 February 2012 at 1:25 pm

    [Question from student at Bloomberg database session]
    How to reference Bloomberg – in particular a specific report or dataset from Bloomberg?

    See – https://bizlib247.wordpress.com/2012/11/30/referencing-databases-bloomberg-datastream-etc/

  4. markgreenwood
    19 April 2014 at 4:50 pm

    This post is now a little out of date.
    It is now EndNote and EndNote online (rather than EndNote Web)
    There is now a Referencing guide at the University of Manchester
    Tips for choosing a reference management system – http://www.literaturereviewhq.com/6-tips-on-how-to-choose-reference-management-software/

  1. 26 July 2012 at 3:30 pm

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