Home > Business Databases, Library guides, Referencing > Referencing databases (Bloomberg, Datastream etc.)

Referencing databases (Bloomberg, Datastream etc.)

Guide to citing referencesBased on our popular “Guide to citing references guide (2012)” here are recommendations for citing specialist company and financial databases.

Harvard Style Referencing is now available as part of the Guide to Referencing at the University of Manchester. [12 Jan 2013]


Bloomberg. (2012) Bloomberg Professional. [Online]. Available at: Subscription Service (Accessed: 30 November 2012)

CRSP/Compustat Merged. (2012) CRSP/Compustat Merged. Center for Research in Security Prices. [Online]. Available at: WRDS  http://wrds-web.wharton.upenn.edu/wrds/ (Accessed: 14 November 2012)

Datastream. (2012) Thomson Reuters Datastream. [Online]. Available at: Subscription Service (Accessed: November 2012)

Fame, (2012) Fame. Bureau van Dijk. [Online]. Available at: http://fame2.bvdep.com/  (Accessed: 19 November 2012)

Orbis, (2012) OrbisBureau van Dijk. [Online]. Available at: https://orbis2.bvdep.com/  (Accessed: 19 November 2012)

SDC Platinum. (2012) SDC Platinum. Thomson Reuters. [Online]. Available at: Subscription Service (Accessed: November 2012)

Thomson One Banker. (2012) Thomson One Banker. Thomson Reuters. [Online]. Available at: http://banker.thomsonib.com/  (Accessed: 19 November 2012)

Reports/Data within a Database

Bloomberg. (2012) “Company information for Rolls Royce PLC”, Bloomberg Professional. [Online]. Available at: Bloomberg Subscription Service (Accessed: 19 November 2012)

Mintel. (2009) Books – UK – December 2009, Market Research Report. [Online]. Available at : http://reports.mintel.com/sinatra/reports/display/id=395633 (Accessed: 05 January 2010).

Meltz, M. A., Lewis, D. & Lovell, N. (2009). [J.P. Morgan report on] The McGraw-Hill Companies – 07 Dec 2009. Thomson Research Investment Research Collection Rpt. 15613728  [Online]. Available at: Thomson Research – http://research.thomsonib.com/ (Accessed: 05 January 2010).


If we consider a database as similar to an e-book then the first decision is whether you are citing the complete database or a separate identifiable part of the database.

Where a company has several databases it is easier for the reader if you use the database name as the author. This means that the in-text citation will be (Datastream, 2012) rather than (Thomson Reuters, 2012a) and the reader has to go to the list of references to find which Thomson Reuters database you are citing.


In some academic writing there are alternatives in how to cite the source, or sources, you have used. You can put all the information where the original data is described, or you can include a citation in the text with the full detail in the references.

For example:

Figure 1 shows comparison of share price return and total return. Graph obtained from Bloomberg Professional, online subscription service, (Accessed: 3 December 2013).


Figure 1 shows comparison of share price return and total return – graph obtained from Bloomberg (2013).


Bloomberg. (2013) Bloomberg Professional. [Online]. Available at: Subscription Service (Accessed: 3 December 2013)

For student academic reports the second option has the advantage that anyone reading the references is reminded of the data sources used. If you are submitting to an academic journal then you should follow the guidelines for that specific journal.

Additonal information

here is a Referencing Tab in the Business and Management subject guide.

You can also browse the other posts in the referencing category.

  1. markgreenwood
    6 December 2013 at 10:31 pm

    Expanded post with more detail of how you might cite a database in the context of a figure. You should always make it clear whether it is a figure that you have created using the database functions, or you have just obtained the data and designed the figure yourself.

  1. 21 December 2013 at 6:44 pm
  2. 14 January 2014 at 11:25 am

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